The thyroid plays a big role in controlling many of our bodily processes with the thyroid hormones T3 and T4 that it releases, mainly for regulating metabolism.
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Historical references to what is known to us as the thyroid gland today has its roots in ancient times and early medical history. Since 1600 BC, when the Chinese used a burnt sponge and algae to treat enlargement of the thyroid. Traces were also found in Indian Ayurvedic medicine.
The use of this treatment was then advanced over time. There was an outbreak of goitre in the Alps where it was first described as a neck tumor in the 14th century. However, it was only in 1475 that Wang Hei described anatomically the thyroid gland.
In 1656, Thomas Wharton appointed the thyroid gland, due to its shape shield. In 1811, in Paris the iodine was discovered in seaweed and burnt it directly been speculated that it was the active ingredient which made the effective treatment of hyperthyroidism.
After 10 years, Proust recommended iodine as a treatment and Robert Graves, for his part, has in stride published a book on goitre in 1835. In the 19th century, as thyroxine (T4) was isolated by Edward Calvin Kendall. C. R. Harington then synthesized the hormone, followed by T3 which was also isolated and synthesized in turn.
These two hormones have ever since been constantly improved and made available to medical disposition for the welfare of all. Today, the natural thyroid hormone that contains a mixture of T4 and T3 provides effective treatments for a variety of thyroid hormone disorders.
The thyroid hormone is secreted by the butterfly shaped gland located at the base of your neck, the thyroid, which is in front of the trachea, and just below the vocal cords and larynx. Although small, the thyroid plays a big role in controlling many of our bodily processes with the thyroid hormones T3 and T4 that it releases, mainly for regulating metabolism. You may feel tired most of the time or you feel restless and lose or gain weight even with a proper diet.
Your heart rate and body temperature can be raised and lowered. It controls the rate at which food moves throughout your gastrointestinal tract, the breakdown of food and conversion of it into energy, the rate at which your body burns calories, and how quickly the cells regenerate and are reconstituted .
The thyroid diseases such as goitre, hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, depend on the way this hormone is produced (too much or not enough.)
Production of thyroid hormones
The production of thyroid hormone affects all the organs and cells of the body. There are two types of hormones released by the thyroid gland: thyroxine (T4) and tri-iodo-thyronine (T3). Thyroid uses two raw materials in the production of thyroid hormones:
Thyroid cells have a unique function specialized to absorb and use iodine in its processes. Iodine comes from the food you eat, the recovery in the bloodstream by the thyroid epithelial cells that contain a sodium-iodide sym-bearer on the outer plasma membrane. Once iodide is trapped, it is then transported into the lumen of the follicle along with thyroglobulin.
These come from the thyroglobulin, a large structure of glycoprotein synthesized by epithelial cells of the thyroid gland then secreted into the follicle lumen. Tyrosine residues form two mono-iodo-tyrosine groups (MIT) and di-iodo-tyrosine (DIT). Two tyrosine di-iodinated when connected form thyroxine, and a particle of MIT and one particle of DIT combined produce tri-iodo-thyronine.
It is essential to have an adequate supply of iodine to achieve normal levels of production of the thyroid hormone. Iodine deficiency prevents the thyroid to produce thyroid hormones, and could have adverse effects on the growth of your body, metabolism, heart rate, other critical functions, and your overall well-being. Iodide is the first to take place in the synthesis, which is then converted into iodine and optionally condensed into tyrosine residues.
The enzyme of the thyroid peroxidase acts as a catalyst for the iodination of tyrosines on thyroglobulin, and synthesis of biological active agents T3 and T4. The reaction with the enzyme helps the thyroperoxidase thyroid hormone to accumulate in the follicle of the colloid, then on the surface of thyroid epithelial cells. These cells ingest colloid by endocytosis and the vesicles fuse with the lysosomes endocytosis, thus releasing thyroid hormones.
The thyroid gland cooperates with the pituitary gland which releases the TSH or thyroid stimulating hormone. TSH secretion causes the thyroid gland to release more, a high TSH level means that there is not enough thyroid and a low TSH means that there are too many. The thyroid functioning normally produces about 80% T4 and about 20% T3.
Triiodothyronine or T3 is one of the two hormones produced by the thyroid gland, the other is the T4. T3 is identical to T4, with the distinction of having less iodine atoms in each molecule. T3 is the most active hormone produced from T4, which is de-iodinated by 3 de-iodinases enzymes.
Triiodothyronine is composed of:
-Type 1 which is present in the kidney, liver, thyroid, and pituitary.
– Type 2 found in the CNS, the pituitary, the vessels of the heart and brown adipose tissue.
– Type 3 present in the placenta, the central nervous system, and hemangioma.
T3 effects on target tissues are more powerful than the effects of T4. Most T3 in your blood bind to the protein, and those that do not are called free T3. Measuring T3 in your blood can help doctors determine if you have a thyroid problem.
Potential problems are hyperthyroidism when the thyroid produces excessive hormones, hypothyroidism when the thyroid gland does not produce normal amounts of thyroid hormone, thyroid-toxic periodic paralysis resulting in muscle weakness or nodular goiter toxic when the thyroid gland malfunctions, and have rounded outgrowths.
Thyroxine or T4 is the pro-hormone produced by the thyroid gland with T3. T4 in the blood also creates bonds with proteins, like T3, and those that do not and remain unbound are called free T4. It is composed of four iodine molecules attached to their overall molecular structure, which affects almost all of the human body processes.
It may be less strong than T3 but it produces significantly greater amounts and has a longer half-life. It is considered pro-hormone since it acts as a reservoir for the T3 where T4 is converted as tissues that your body requires.
Measuring T4 can help diagnose thyroid problems where symptoms include puffiness, dryness, irritation, swelling, dry skin, hair loss, increased heart rate, weight changes, anxiety, sleep disorders, fatigue, constipation, and irregular menstruation.
The high and low indicated levels with a T4 test indicate similar disorders that doctors may find when running a T3 test.
Medical uses for thyroid hormones
Thyroid hormones are very useful in terms of medical applications. T3 and T4 hormones are commonly used to treat hypothyroidism, a condition caused by lack of natural production of the thyroid gland. Hypothyroidism is usually caused by the Hashimoto’s disease, an inadvertently weakening of the thyroid gland by radiation treatments, surgery or drugs that reduce the levels of the thyroid hormone.
The thyroid hormonal treatment is hoping to reproduce the normal thyroid function. The T4, which is pure and the synthetic thyroxine, are the best ones to act as a natural thyroid hormone and this works wonderfully to replace the missing hormone.
Thyroid hormones can be ingested orally and the intestine will absorb them well. They should not be taken more than once a day because the hormones remain inside the body for a long period of time, besides they appear with very stable levels when they circulate in the blood.
The ultimate treatment goal of the thyroid is to maintain the thyroid function in line for people with no thyroid problems. The best time to take the TSH sis in the morning when you wake up with an empty stomach, because the TSH may be more difficult to absorb in the presence of food. The key to a well functioning thyroid is to be consistent in taking thyroid hormone medication at the same time every day, but make sure to check with your doctor or pharmacist if you are taking other medicines.
Studies show that patients with hypothyroidism taking thyroid hormones for medical uses showed positive changes, which include the following:
- An energy level significantly improved throughout the day.
- Regulation of mood, general welfare and stimulation of mental functions such as memory retention and critical thinking.
- A lower level of triglycerides and cholesterol.
- Normalization of growth in children that has been delayed due to the state. Immediate growth thrust, as if the thyroid worked again when they take adequate doses.
Sporting uses of thyroid hormones
Thyroid hormones are not strangers when it comes to the sports world. Sports and vigorous punitive daily training can deplete the body, and directly affect the thyroid gland. Thyroid hormones come in many forms in this discipline.
Prescription medications such as pills and tablets to ingest as powder. It should also be noted that the level of thyroid hormones determines the speed or reduction of basic metabolic, it is a vital information for all runners and bodybuilders.
Put the body in a similar situation to hyperthyroidism will allow the user to burn more calories as heat, a temperature elevation of the body called thermogenesis.
There is still an ongoing scientific debate on how thyroid hormones are used as amplification complement of performance, because there is also a correlation wishing that intense training can overtax the thyroid gland over time. This can easily act against the grain, given the importance and value that the thyroid gland plays in our lives everyday.
It is a proven fact that racing in endurance mode can reduce the production of thyroid hormone and finally the runner or bodybuilder will approach a doctor or a specialist coach.
Thyroid hormones for weight loss
It was concluded earlier that the thyroid plays a vital role in body weight, and metabolism, and helps our bodies stay warm, use energy efficiently, and keep our brain, heart, muscles and other organs in state of operating as they should.
Thyroid hormone regulates metabolism in humans and animals. Metabolism can be measured by the amount of oxygen which is used by the body in a specific time period. The BMR or basal metabolic rate, is the number obtained when the measurement is taken at rest. The BMR was a major test of indicators to determine whether a patient had thyroid underperforming or hyper-efficient.
The T3 is also involved in an important role in increasing the BMR of a person. When thyroid hormones are introduced into the system, they increase the rate of metabolism and can:
- Increase the number of calories required for normal body processes, even when the body and muscles are passive and at rest.
- Increase the distribution and use of most nutrients macromolecules created in the body.
- Increase the amount of energy and oxygen that our body uses.
- Increase the primary energy generating complex in the body, that is the population ATPase, sodium and potassium.
Given the benefits, thyroid hormones can be taken as a weight loss supplement, especially when it provokes fatty acid metabolism and decomposes fat stored in the adipose tissue.
Put simply, the T3 thyroid hormone increases the overall basal metabolic rate which digests all food groups more effectively, unlocks the massive energy used for the body, and can have a profound and immediate effect in overweight people in hypothyroidism diagnosed or not.
Creating an exercise regimen supplemented with regular supplements of thyroid hormone provides a more efficient result because the hormone gives the body an abundance of energy that encourages vigorous movements. Unlike artificial stimulants such as synephrine or caffeine, thyroid hormone supplements increase the metabolic rate without the effect of stage fright and do not provide a “crash” when the effects wear off.
Note that the supplement should be taken in moderation and the user must keep in mind not to take too much and get in condition of hyperthyroidism.